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Central America/Mexico Migration News Brief for April 30, 2018

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A compilation of recent top articles and reports related to issues of U.S. immigration and enforcement policy and migration from Central America and Mexico (articles in English and Spanish). Please feel free to send us recommendations or requests for upcoming news briefs: lfolkerts@lawg.org.

Source: Associated Press, VOA


•Joint Statement Urging U.S./Mexican Authorities to Respect Asylum
Alianza Americas, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Kids in Need of Defense (KIND), Latin America Working Group (LAWG), Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) and Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC), April 27, 2018

“Women’s Refugee Commission and others urge U.S. and Mexican authorities to abide by international and national law in their processing of asylum seekers at the U.S-Mexico border at all times, to uphold due process and ensure family unity. All individuals have the right to pursue asylum and for due process to be upheld in the processing of their claims.”

•Tell Secretary Nielsen: Stop Separating Families!
LAWG, March 2018

“Secretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen Nielsen, abandon the cruel, costly, and unjustified practice of separating families seeking protection at our borders, including those who are fleeing persecution in their home countries. Children belong with their parents in safe communities, not locked up in detention centers.”

•Between a Wall and a Dangerous Place: The Intersection of Human Rights, Public Security, Corruption & Migration in Honduras and El Salvador
Lisa Haugaard, Daniella Burgi-Palomino, & Andrea Fernández, LAWG, March 2018

“This report is a series of blog posts written from October 2017 through March 2018 about the dangers and challenges faced by Honduran and Salvadoran citizens in their home countries, even as the Trump Administration moves to deport more Honduran- and Salvadoran-born people in the United States back to home countries they may no longer know and restrict protections to those fleeing. The series, based on interviews with activists, government officials, journalists, humanitarian workers, diplomats, and academics, shows how the dangers that propel  children, teenagers, women, and men from those countries to seek refuge in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere have not ended.”

U.S. Enforcement

•US Says Border Crossing Didn’t Have Room for Asylum Seekers
Associated Press, VOA, April 30, 2018

“After a final briefing from lawyers and minutes before they were to begin a short walk to the border crossing, U.S. Customs and Border Protection Commissioner Kevin McAleenan announced that the San Ysidro border crossing, the nation’s busiest, had ‘reached capacity’ for people without legal documents and that asylum-seekers may need to wait in Mexico temporarily.”

•Top Homeland Security officials urge criminal prosecution of parents crossing border with children
Maria Sacchetti, The Washington Post, April 26, 2018

“In a memorandum that outlines the proposal and was obtained by The Washington Post, officials say that threatening adults with criminal charges and prison time would be the ‘most effective’ way to reverse the steadily rising number of attempted crossings. Most parents now caught crossing the border illegally with their children are quickly released to await civil deportation hearings.”

•Homeland chief warns immigrant caravan: ‘We will enforce the immigration laws’
Max Greenwood, The Hill, April 26, 2018

“‘If you enter our country illegally, you have broken the law and will be referred for prosecution. If you make a false immigration claim, you have broken the law and will be referred for prosecution. If you assist or coach an individual in making a false immigration claim, you have broken the law and will be referred for prosecution.’ Nielsen urged the migrants not to carry on into the U.S., saying that they should seek protection in the first country they entered since leaving their homes, including in Mexico.”

•Migrant Caravan Asylum Seekers Being ‘Illegally’ Turned Away at Border, Rights Group Says
Chantal Da Silva, Newsweek, April 20, 2018

“As many as 50 Central Americans traveling with a migrant caravan that has drawn the ire of President Donald Trump for weeks have made it to the U.S.-Mexico border after an arduous journey that began in southern Mexico in late March—and they are being turned away, organizers say, calling the move illegal. ‘There have already been cases of people being illegally turned away by border officials when trying to request asylum at the U.S. border,’ Alex Mensing, a spokesperson for Pueblo Sin Fronteras, an immigrant rights group that organized the event, told Newsweek.”

•Americas: US and Mexican authorities must respect caravan participants’ right to seek asylum
Amnesty International, April 24, 2018

“Threatening to indefinitely detain, prosecute, and deport these asylum seekers is a cruel effort to stigmatize, terrify and push away traumatized people, many of whom have already given up everything to flee desperate circumstances in their home countries.”

•In ICE detention, pregnant women face stress, trauma, and inadequate care
Reps. Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-Calif.) and Pramila Jayapal (D-Wash.), The Hill, April 25, 2018

“As described in a complaint filed in September on behalf of several women who are or were pregnant in ICE custody, it appeared that the agency had become less willing to release pregnant women from custody to sponsors in the community or into detention alternatives, such as migrant shelters, once their pregnancy was identified. ICE has now confirmed our suspicions by announcing it has ended its policy of presumptive release for pregnant women in detention. Instead, the agency is pursuing a dangerous practice of detaining pregnant women in inhumane facilities.”

•Sessions resumes immigrant legal advice program under pressure from Congress
Tal Kopan, CNN, April 25, 2018

“Attorney General Jeff Sessions reversed course on suspending a legal advice program for undocumented immigrants, saying he has ordered the resumption of the program pending a review of its effectiveness. Sessions announced the move at the opening of a hearing before the Senate Appropriations subcommittee that funds the Justice Department, saying he made the decision at the request of Congress, which has consistently appropriated money for the program.”

•Trump v. Hawaii: the Supreme Court might make Trump’s travel ban permanent
Dara Lind, Vox, April 25, 2018

“Throughout the travel ban cases, the Supreme Court has been a little more deferential to the administration than lower courts. While it’s by no means a sure thing that the Court’s four conservative justices and occasional swing vote Anthony Kennedy will all side with the Trump administration, there certainly isn’t much visible evidence they’ll side against it. But while the Supreme Court frequently makes its decisions along obvious ideological lines, it often does not. The question facing the Court right now is which of the stakes it’s most worried about: the legality of the policy as it’s written; the precedent of extending the court’s jurisdiction over immigration; or the prospect of endorsing the signature policy of Donald J. Trump.”

•Before migrant caravan reaches border, 90 request asylum at San Ysidro, more wait outside
Kate Morrissey, The San Diego Union Tribune, April 24, 2018

“While the caravan brought a spotlight to people requesting asylum, with both Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen and Attorney General Jeff Sessions committing to send extra staff to the border in response to its expected arrival, the U.S. side of the port at San Ysidro frequently receives people from all over the world asking for protection.”

•Third US judge orders Daca restarted, saying new applicants must be accepted
Lauren Gambino, The Guardian, April 24, 2018

“A third federal judge has ordered the Trump administration to restart a program that shields young undocumented immigrants known as ‘Dreamers’ from deportation and, in a first, to accept new applicants to the program. Writing that the decision to end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (Daca) program was ‘virtually unexplained’, the US district judge John Bates said on Tuesday he would stay the order for 90 days to allow the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) an opportunity to ‘better explain’ its decision.”

•Sanctuary cities don’t ‘breed crime.’ They encourage people to report crime.
Tom K. Wong, The Washington Post, April 24, 2018

“All the results are just as stark, showing the chilling effects of having local law enforcement agencies do the work of federal immigration enforcement. Fully 69.6 percent say they are less likely to ‘Use public services (e.g., go to City Hall) that required you to give your personal contact information’; 63.9 percent say they are less likely to ‘Do business (e.g., open a bank account, get a loan) that required you to give your personal contact information’; 68.3 percent say they are less likely to ‘Participate in public events where police may be present’; among those with children, 42.9 percent say they are less likely to ‘Place your children in an after-school or day-care program’; and 52.1 percent say they are less likely to ‘Look for a new job.’”

•ICE busts 225 people during sweeping six-day raid in New York
Janon Fisher, New York Daily News, April 24, 2018

Immigration advocates counter that the more aggressive deportation enforcement under the Trump administration doesn’t make anyone any safer and often rips hardworking families apart. ‘The recent ICE raids are a clear illustration on the ongoing, and escalating, attack on our communities by the Trump administration,’ Yatziri Tovar, spokeswoman for Make the Road New York. ‘Make no mistake: This is about tearing apart families who have lived here for many years, with no regard for their deep ties to our communities and enormous contributions to New York City and state.’”

•Greyhound Is Choosing To Let Border Patrol Demand Its Passengers’ Papers
Elise Foley, The Huffington Post, April 24, 2018

“‘The starting place is to not give your consent,’ said Jordan Wells, an attorney for the New York Civil Liberties Union. ‘If Border Patrol then says, ‘You know what, we actually don’t even need their consent, we’re going to just do this stuff,’ that would violate the Constitution. But we the public don’t get to have that conversation about whether this is constitutional when Greyhound gives away the game by just saying, ‘We consent, so it’s OK.’”

•How the Border Patrol Faked Statistics Showing a 73 Percent Rise in Assaults Against Agents
Debbie Nathan, The Intercept, April 23, 2018

“Rather than a picture of increasing violence against Border Patrol agents, what emerges from the FBI’s data is that the Border Patrol’s job has never been safer. The decrease was so significant that by 2016, according to FBI statistics, Border Patrol agents were about five times less likely to be assaulted than officers in local police departments — and only half as likely to be killed on the job by homicide or by accident. As the Cato Institute observed in November, ‘Regular Americans are more than twice as likely to be murdered in any year from 2003 through 2017 than Border Patrol agents were.’ But even as Border Patrol work was getting safer, the agency began manipulating its data to claim increasing danger and advance a political agenda.”

•Jury finds border agent not guilty of 2nd-degree murder, deadlocks on lesser charges
Perla Trevizo, Arizona Daily Star, April 23, 2018

“The jury found Border Patrol agent Lonnie Swartz not guilty of second-degree murder, but was unable to reach a verdict on two lesser charges of voluntary or involuntary manslaughter, the judge said Monday afternoon. Swartz is accused of shooting through the border fence in Nogales in 2012 and killing 16-year-old Jose Antonio Elena Rodríguez, a Mexican teen who was said to be among a group throwing rocks across the border.”

•Hundreds of Immigrant Children Have Been Taken From Parents at U.S. Border
Caitlin Dickerson, The New York Times, April 20, 2018

“New data reviewed by The New York Times shows that more than 700 children have been taken from adults claiming to be their parents since October, including more than 100 children under the age of 4. The data was prepared by the Office of Refugee Resettlement, a division of the Department of Health and Human Services that takes custody of children who have been removed from migrant parents. Senior officials at the Department of Homeland Security, which processes migrants at the border, initially denied that the numbers were so high. But after they were confirmed to The Times by three federal officials who work closely with these cases, a spokesman for the health and human services department on Friday acknowledged in a statement that there were ‘approximately 700.’”

•Trump’s ‘extreme vetting’ is muzzling activists and shutting them out
Carrie DeCell, The Guardian, April 20, 2018

“These recent incidents are part of a broader government scheme to wield immigration authority to silence activists both within and beyond the US borders. CBP and Ice agents conduct suspicionless searches of travelers’ electronic devices –including their text messages, emails, social media posts, and photographs – when they cross the US border. Under the rubric of ‘extreme vetting’, the administration now plans to require immigrant and non-immigrant visa applicants to surrender their social media handles, including pseudonyms and aliases, in connection with their applications.”

•A Marriage Used to Prevent Deportation. Not Anymore.
Vivian Yee, The New York Times, April 19, 2018

“For decades, marriage to a United States citizen has been a virtual guarantee of legal residency, the main hurdle being proof that the relationship is legitimate. But with the Trump administration in fierce pursuit of unauthorized immigrants across the country, many who were ordered deported years ago are finding that jobs, home and family are no longer a defense — not even for those who have married Americans.”

•A Rule Is Changed for Young Immigrants, and Green Card Hopes Fade
Liz Robbins, The New York Times, April 18, 2018

“For the last 10 years, cases like theirs have routinely been approved. But as the Trump administration focuses on limiting all forms of immigration and tries to stop the flow of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-United States border, it appears to be targeting the special immigrant status; President Trump often invokes fear that these immigrants could belong to MS-13, the transnational gang, and that they are committing fraud in their applications. ‘They are looking for what he calls ‘loopholes,’ and what we call protections, and trying to close them,’ said Wendy Young, the executive director of Kids In Need of Defense, a nonprofit organization that represents young immigrants who come to the country unaccompanied. ‘Under this administration, everybody is presenting a fraudulent claim, rather than, ‘Why is this child here and do they need protection?’”

•Supreme Court Restricts Deportations Of Immigrant Felons
Andrew Chung, The Huffington Post, April 17, 2018

“The U.S. Supreme Court ruled on Tuesday that an immigration statute requiring the deportation of noncitizens who commit felonies is unlawfully vague in a decision that could limit the Trump administration’s ability to step up the removal of immigrants with criminal records.”

•DHS decision to end Haitian immigrant protections questioned
Tal Kopan, CNN, April 17, 2018

“The documents suggest DHS contradicted its own staff assessment of Haiti when it opted to end TPS for the country, which was put in place after the devastating 2010 earthquake. The documents also include email correspondence showing Haiti’s deep concern about ending TPS for the country.”

Mexican Enforcement

•Condicionar TLCAN a control migratorio, inaceptable: Videgaray
La Jornada, 23 de abril de 2018

“’México decide su política migratoria de manera soberana, y la cooperación migratoria con EUA (Estados Unidos) ocurre por así convenir a México’, afirmó el secretario de Relaciones Exteriores mexicano, Luis Videgaray, en su cuenta de Twitter. ‘Sería inaceptable condicionar la renegociación del TLCAN a acciones migratorias fuera de este marco de cooperación’, señaló”.

•SRE hace saber a Trump que Senado pidió suspender cooperación bilateral
Iván E. Saldaña, Excelsior, 24 de abril de 2018

“La Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores (SRE) manifestó al presidente Donald Trump y al Congreso estadunidense que el Senado de la República pide suspender la cooperación bilateral en materia migratoria y de seguridad, en tanto el mandatario de Estados Unidos ‘no se conduzca con respeto’ hacia México… El pronunciamiento de la cámara alta fue aprobado por el Pleno, el pasado 4 de abril, en el que rechazaron también categóricamente la militarización de Estados Unidos en la frontera con México”.

•Fallo de juez federal declara inconstitucional el Acuerdo emitido por la COMAR por el cual se suspenden los términos para resolver los procedimientos de reconocimiento de la condición de refugiados.
Plan de Accion Brasil: Grupo Articulador Mexico, 16 de abril de 2018

“Tal situación preocupa al considerar que han sido reportados 2,400 procedimientos abandonados y desistidos, presumiblemente como respuesta a los largos plazos de resolución y la poca información que se proporciona a los interesados, lo que se traduce en una negación de facto a protección internacional”.

•Cuello de botella migratorio al sur de México
Ivan Briscoe, openDemocracy, 11 de abril de 2018

“La xenofobia se está extendiendo por el sur de México a medida que la ira se acumula por la llegada de un número sin precedentes de centroamericanos a pueblos insuficientemente equipados por el Estado para hacerle frente a este influjo”.

Root Causes

•Homicide in Mexico 2007-March 2018: Continuing Epidemic of Militarized Hyper-Violence
Molly Molloy, Small Wars Journal, April 27, 2018

“We must also note that the Mexican government during all of this past decade of hyper-violence, has continually stated without evidence that 90 percent of homicide victims are members of drug cartels, thus branding tens of thousands of slaughtered Mexicans as criminals killing each other. More than 95 percent of homicides are never fully investigated by law enforcement. The government never acknowledges that the violence began its steep rise in parallel with President Calderon’s deployment of the Mexican Army into the so-called ‘drug war,’ with support and billions of dollars in military and security aid from the United States.”

•’Breathtaking homicidal violence’: Latin America in grip of murder crisis
Tom Phillips, The Guardian, April 26, 2018

“Latin America has suffered more than 2.5m murders since the start of this century and is facing an acute public security crisis that demands urgent and innovative solutions, a new report warns… Latin America suffers 33% of the world’s homicides despite having only 8% of its population. One-quarter of all global homicides are concentrated in four countries – Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela – all of which are gearing up for presidential elections in which security is a dominant theme.”

•How to Leave MS-13 Alive
Steven Dudley, The New York Times, April 26, 2018

“The church — in particular the evangelical Pentecostal church — drew them into its fold and wrenched them, prayer service by prayer service, from the tenacious grip of the gangs. The gangs, in turn, respected this exit. Becoming an active member of a religious community remains virtually the only way someone can leave the notorious gang Mara Salvatrucha, better known as MS-13, alive.”

•How U.S. Guns Sold to Mexico End Up With Security Forces Accused of Crime and Human Rights Abuses
John Lindsay-Poland, The Intercept, April 26, 2018

“The Trump administration is set to make it easier for guns to flow to forces like those that disappeared Tizapa’s son. As part of an ‘Arms Transfer Initiative’ aimed at boosting all U.S. weapons sales, the administration will likely soon announce policies that would ease the rules by which the United States sends guns and munitions abroad. Under the new regime, oversight of export licenses is expected to move from the State Department to the Commerce Department, and many fear there will be less scrutiny with regards to human rights and national security concerns.”

•Quiénes eran los 3 estudiantes de cine asesinados y ¿por qué los jóvenes están siendo víctimas de la violencia?
BBC Mundo, 26 de abril de 2018

“Como las cifras del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía indican, de alrededor de 210 mil homicidios que ocurrieron de 2007 a 2016, más de 107 mil fueron de personas entre 15 y 34 años. En promedio por cada mujer que fue asesinada, ocho víctimas fueron hombres”.

•Soldiers took them in the night. Now Mexico’s drug war strategy is on trial.
Kate Linthicum, Los Angeles Times, April 25, 2018

“It is the first case related to Mexico’s drug war to come before the court, part of the human rights protection arm of the Organization of American States. The court is expected to rule that Mexico is guilty of human rights violations for failing to bring justice in the case and require the government to make reparations to the victims’ family. Legal analysts say it is not only Mexico’s government that will be on trial, but also the country’s broader strategy of using soldiers to fight domestic crime — a controversial tactic that is gaining popularity across Latin America, notably in Brazil, Honduras, El Salvador and Venezuela.”

•In echo of Parkland shooting outrage, anger rises in Mexico after film students were killed and dissolved in acid
Patrick J. McDonnell, Los Angeles Times, April 24, 2018

“On Monday, Jalisco prosecutors gave a televised news conference revealing the fate of the three students — Javier Salomon Aceves, 25; Jesus Daniel Diaz, 20; and Marco Garcia Avalos, 20. All studied at the University of Audiovisual Media in Guadalajara. The three were beaten and tortured before being killed, and their bodies were later dissolved in sulfuric acid, said authorities, who cited genetic evidence gathered at various scenes associated with the crime.”

•IACHR Expresses Concern over Deaths in the Context of Nicaraguan Protests
IACHR, April 24, 2018

“The IACHR and its Special Rapporteurship for Freedom of Expression stress that States need to act based on the legality of any public protests or demonstrations and to assume they are not a threat to law and order. Directly repressing and arbitrarily arresting demonstrators is incompatible with the right of those people to peacefully express their views. The fact that some groups or individuals exercise violence during a demonstration does not per se make that whole protest violent, and it does not warrant actions by the security forces to disperse protesters using force or to carry out indiscriminate arrests.”

•Nicaragua protest killings may be ‘unlawful’: UN
AFP, April 24, 2018

“The United Nations called Tuesday on Nicaragua to investigate a crackdown on protests that have left at least 27 dead, saying that a number of the killings may have been ‘unlawful’. Pension reforms sparked nearly a week of deadly unrest underscoring public resentment of 72-year-old leftist President Daniel Ortega and his wife Rosario Murillo, his vice president.”

•Nicaragua: Jesuit High School Student Among Protesters Killed During Unrest
Ignatian Solidarity Network, April 23, 2018

“Álvaro Manuel Conrado Davila, a 15-year-old student at Instituto Loyola, the Jesuit High School in Managua, Nicaragua, was killed while peacefully protesting on April 20, 2018. Conrado was one of more than twenty protesters killed over a four day period of unrest related to the recent announcement by President Daniel Ortega of changes to the country’s social security program.”

•Nicaraguans take to streets en masse on sixth day of protests
Joshua Partlow, The Washington Post, April 23, 2018

“After five days of protests and deadly clashes with police, Ortega went on television Sunday and announced he would reverse his decision to overhaul the social security system, a move he had pushed to require citizens to pay more during their working lives and receive less upon retirement. But his attempt to appease Nicaraguans appeared insufficient, as thousands of flag-waving residents marched on Monday afternoon through downtown Managua in opposition to violence by security forces, as well as in other cities such as Granada and Esteli.”

•Un informe inédito del Gobierno rechaza (otra vez) el desplazamiento por violencia
María Cidón Kiernan, Factum, 21 marzo de 2018

“El gobierno de El Salvador rechaza el concepto de desplazamiento forzado por la violencia para referirse a las personas que abandonan sus casas por amenazas o ataques. No dice que no exista, pero tampoco asume las implicaciones de reconocerlo. Un informe del Ministerio de Justicia y Seguridad Pública, que aún no ha sido compartido, nombra al problema como ‘movilidad interna a causa de la violencia’ y se basa en una encuesta realizada en 22 municipios de El Plan El Salvador Seguro. Señala que solo el 1 % de las personas encuestadas reconoció haber huido de su casa por la violencia. Este es un reconocimiento a medias que impide dimensionar el problema y atender de forma efectiva a las víctimas, según denuncian las organizaciones que trabajan con las familias afectadas”.

•Azucena fue raptada y agredida sexualmente por nueve agentes de seguridad
Gabriel García, La Prensa Gráfica, 20 de abril de 2018

“Media hora después, el carro se detiene. Uno de los hombres obliga a la adolescente a bajar frente a una finca, justo en un bordo. Todos bajan del carro con sus armas en mano. El que lleva el mando se sube el gorro pasamontañas hasta la mitad de la cara, se acerca a la menor y con una lámpara le ordena que se suba en el montículo de tierra y se ponga de rodillas. Le pide por última vez que les dé información sobre la pandilla, la menor reitera que no sabe nada”.

•El Presidente electo de Costa Rica carece de plan para enfrentar la creciente inseguridad
Parker Asmann, openDemocracy, 19 de abril de 2018

“A pesar de que hay claros signos de que la inseguridad ha ido creciendo en Costa Rica, debido a la mayor participación del país en el comercio internacional de drogas, el presidente electo no presentó durante su campaña un plan claro orientado a detener la creciente ola de violencia y criminalidad. Los funcionarios costarricenses saben muy bien que la violencia relacionada con el crimen organizado va en aumento”.

Actions, Reports, and Resources

•The Waiting Game
ProPublica, April 23, 2018

“Based on the real case files of five asylum seekers from five countries and interviews with the medical and legal professionals who evaluate and represent them, The Waiting Game is an experimental news game that lets you walk in the shoes of an asylum seeker, from the moment they choose to come to the United States to the final decision in the cases before an immigration judge.”

•Poverty and Human Rights
IACHR, April 2018

”This report is a preliminary effort by the IACHR to examine the issue of poverty from a human rights angle. From that perspective, people who live in poverty are no longer considered ‘recipients of charity’ and are treated as rights holders instead.”

•Report: The Case for Protecting Legal Immigration Against Recent Attacks
FWD.us, April 2018

“Recent efforts to further stymie immigration reflect a growing attack on legal immigration that undermines the U.S.’ global standing, threatens our economic leadership, and fundamentally contradicts our nation’s heritage as a country that welcomes immigrants from every corner of the globe. Moreover, eliminating avenues for people to immigrate to the United States would devastate economic growth in the United States causing as much as a two percent drop in GDP by 2040, with 4.6 million fewer jobs. This report will outline the overall benefits of immigrants and immigration, as well as the policies and regulations that have been pursued over the last year, and the impact on our families, communities, and economy.”

•Immigrants as Economic Contributors: Complementing Not Competing
Dan Kosten, National Immigration Forum, April 17, 2018

“The crucial role immigrants play in our workforce is unfamiliar to many members of the public. Immigrants are projected to provide the bulk of growth in our workforce in the coming 40 years. To meet the goal of an annual GDP increase of 3 percent, immigrant workers will be essential. This fact sheet is the first of a six-part series examining the role immigrants play in our labor force and the contributions they make to our economy. The document highlights research showing that immigrants and U.S.-born workers do not compete against each other for jobs, but rather, fill different niches in our economy.”

•Extreme Vetting of Immigrants: Estimating Terrorism Vetting Failures
David Bier, Cato Institute, April 17, 2018

“During this same period, the chance of an American being killed in an attack committed by a terrorist who entered as a result of a vetting failure was 1 in 328 million per year. The risk from vetting failures was 99.5 percent lower during this period than during the 15-year period from 1987 to 2001. The evidence indicates that the U.S. vetting system is already ‘extreme’ enough to handle the challenge of foreign terrorist infiltration.

*The Central America/Mexico Migration News Brief is a selection of relevant news articles, all of which do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the Latin America Working Group.

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